Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in aerospace and military applications, for ballistic-rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in bicycle tires, and as an asbestos substitute. The name is short for "aromatic polyamide". They are fibers in which the chain molecules are highly oriented along the fiber axis, so the strength of the chemical bond can be exploited.
Aromatic polyamides were first introduced in commercial applications, with a meta-aramid under the trade name Nomex. This fiber, which handles similarly to normal textile apparel fibers, is characterized by its excellent resistance to heat, as it neither melts nor ignites in normal levels of oxygen. It is used extensively in the production of protective apparel, air filtration, thermal and electrical insulation as well as a substitute for asbestos. Later followed by para-aramid fiber with much higher tenacity and elastic modulus called Kevlar by DuPont and Twaron by Teijin/Akzo. Para-aramid fibers are used in many high-tech applications, such as aerospace and military applications and for "bullet-proof" body armor fabric.
After production of the polymer, the aramid fiber is produced by spinning the dissolved polymer to a solid fiber from a liquid chemical blend. Para-aramid fibers show outstanding strength-to-weight properties, - have high elasticity modulus, - high tensile strength, - low creep and low elongation at break (typically 3,5%), - high resistance to abrasion, - high impact resistance, - low flammability, - good resistance against elevated temperatures.
Aramid fiber parts can be applied in various composite end-uses and applications:
body armor (protective clothing and inlays)
aerospace and military applications
sail cloth, ropes
sporting goods (surfboards, hockey sticks, golf clubs, motorbike parts, helmets)
Why carbon fibers are used in light weight composite applications:
A carbon yarn is a composition of thousend(s) of extremely thin carbon fibers. These fibers have a thickness of about 5-10 microns. Carbonfibers are made from acrylic fibers which are carbonized through pyrolysis at temperatures up to 3000 °C. Carbon fibers consist of elongated carbon crystals, which are oriented parallel to the fibre axis. A carbon fiber is characterized by a very small stretch before the carbon fibre breaks (typically 1.5% – 2.5%). Thousands of carbon fibers are combined to form a yarn that can be processed into different fabric substrates like: - woven carbon fabrics and tapes, - multi layer (Non Crimp) fabrics and tapes, - braided sleeves, - non-woven carbon materials, - special fabric patterns (design fabrics) like diamond, fishbone, satin, more lines etc.
These carbon fabrics are used as reinforcement material in combination with a synthetic resin for the production of very strong and lightweight composites, also called Fiber Reinforced Plastics. Carbon fibers used in all kind of reinforcements are widely used as composite (machine) parts: light weight and yet very strong. Especially ideal for serial production in all kinds of normal production processes like: - hand lay-up, - resin transfer molding, - resin injection etc. The black carbon color and gloss together with the fabric surface pattern gives a very distinguished look to the products.
Important properties of carbon composite materials are: - they do not oxidize under the influence of water and oxygen, - they have a much lower density than steel, - high tensile strength, - high stiffness (tensile modulus), - high temperature resistance, - they are electrically conductive and have a low expansion coefficient. These properties make carbon fiber composites very suitable for applications where low weight, high strength and high stiffness are needed. Carbon fiber parts can be applied in various structural and non-structural end-uses and applications:
E-glass fiber materials are the most commonly used products in reinforced plastics industry. All our E-glass materials have a silan binder giving maximum adhesion to the resin. Most products in our webshop are suitable for use with any resin system including epoxy, polyester, vinylester and phenolic.
The term hybrid refers to a fabric that has more than one type of structural fibre in its construction. In a multi-layer laminate if the properties of more than one type of fibre are required, then it would be possible to provide this with two fabrics, each containing the fibre type needed. However, if low weight or extremely thin laminates are required, a hybrid fabric will allow the two fibres to be presented in just one layer of fabric instead of two. It would be possible in a woven hybrid to have one fibre running in the weft direction and the second fibre running in the warp direction, but it is more common to find alternating threads of each fibre in each warp/weft direction. Although hybrids are most commonly found in 0/90 woven fabrics, the principle is also used in 0/90 stitched, unidirectional and multiaxial fabrics. The most usual hybrid combinations are Carbon / Aramid, Aramid / Glass and Carbon / Glass.
Getting the right end result often starts with getting the right tools and supplies for the job. At Compositesplaza we carry a range of tools and supplies, handpicked for their quality, reliability and value. We have our tooling range from cutting knives to scissors or shears, from brushes to resin impregnation rollers and all kind of de-airing rollers. All famous for their long lasting quality and all rollers can be easily cleaned with the normal cleaning chemicals.